Mercersburg Secondary Sources

Thanks to Lee Barrett of Lancaster Theological Seminary for putting this page together.

To be updated and expanded considerably over the coming months.


Appel, Theodore, The Life and Work of John Williamson Nevin (Philadelphia: Reformed Church Publication House, 1889).

Appel, Theodore, The Mercersburg Theology (Manheim, Pennsylvania: Sentinel Printing House, 1953).

Aubert, Annette G., The German Roots of Nineteenth-Century American Theology (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013).

Binkley, Luther J., The Mercersburg Theology (Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Franklin and Marshall College, 1963).

Bonomo, Jonathan G., Incarnation and Sacrament (Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 2010).

Borneman, Adam S., Church, Sacrament, and American Democracy: The Social and Political Dimension of John Williamson Nevin’s Theology of Incarnation (Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 2011).

Bricker, George, A Brief History of the Mercersburg Movement (Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Lancaster Theological Seminary, 1982).

DeBie, Linden, Speculative Theology and Common-Sense Religion: Mercersburg and the Conservative Roots of American Religion (Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Press, 2008).

DiPuccio, William, The Interior Sense of Scripture: The Sacred Hermeneutics of John Williamson Nevin (Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1998).

Erb, William H., Dr, Nevin’s Theology: Based on Manuscript Class-Room Lectures (Reading, Pennsylvania: Beaver, 1913).

Graham, Stephen R., Cosmos in the Chaos: Philip Schaff’s Interpretation of Nineteenth-Century American Religion (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1995).

Hamstra, Sam Jr., and Arie J. Griffioen (eds.), Reformed Confessionalism in Nineteenth Century America: Essays on the Thought of John Williamson Nevin (Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1995).

Hart, Darryl G., John Williamson Nevin: High Church Calvinist (Phillipsburg, New Jersey: Presebyterian and Reformed Press, 2005).

Littlejohn, W. Bradford, The Mercersburg Theology and the Quest for Reformed Catholicity (Eugene, Orgeon: Wipf & Stock, 2009).

Maxwell, Jack Martin, Worship and Reformed Theology: The Liturgical Lessons of Mercersburg (Pittsburgh: Pickwick Press, 1976).

Nichols, James Hastings, Romanticism in American Theology: Nevin and Schaff at Mercersburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961).

Penzel, Klaus, The German Education of Christian Scholar Philip Schaff: The Formative Years 1819-1844 (Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellon Press, 2004).

Schaff, David, The Life of Philip Schaff: In Part Autobiographical (New York: Scribner’s Press, 1897).

Shriver, George, Philip Schaff: Christian Scholar and Ecumenical Prophet (Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1987).

John I. Swander, The Mercersburg Theology (Philadelphia: Reformed Church Publication Board, 1909).

Wentz, Richard E. John Williamson Nevin: American Theologian (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Whitmer, A. C., and George Richards, ed., Addresses on the Life and Theology of Henry Harbaugh and Emanuel Vogel Gerhart (Philadelphia, 1918).

Ziegler, H, J. B., Frederick Augustus Rauch: American Hegelian (Lancaster, Franklin and Marshall, 1943).



Appel, Theodore, Recollections of College Life at Marshall College (Reading, Pennsylvania: Daniel Miller, 1886).

Dubbs, Joseph Henry, History of Franklin and Marshall College (Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Franklin and Marshall Alumni Association, 1903).

Dubbs, Joseph Henry, A History of the Reformed Church, Germany, in the United States (New York: American Church History Series, 1894).

Dubbs, Joseph Henry, The Reformed Church in Pennsylvania (Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania German Society, 1910).

Evans, William Borden, Imputation and Impartation: Union with Christ in American Reformed Theology (Milton Keynes, United Kingdom: Paternoster, 2008).

Good, J. J., History of the Reformed Church in the United States in the Nineteenth Century (New York: The Board of Publication of the Reformed Church in America, 1911).

Hewett, Glenn Alden, Regeneration and Morality: A Study of Charles Finney, Charles Hodge, John W. Nevin, and Horace Bushnell (Brooklyn, New York: Carlson, 1991).

Klein, H. M. J., A Century of Education at Mercersburg (Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Lancaster Press, 1936).

Klein, H. M. J., History of the Eastern Synod of the Reformed Church in the United States (Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Eastern Synod, 1943).

Richards, George, History of the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church in the United States, 1825-1934, Evangelical and Reformed Church, 1934-1952 (Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Theological Seminary of the Evangelical and Reformed Church, 1952).

Wells, David, Reformed Theology in America: A History of Its Modern Development (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1997).



Bowden, Henry Warner, “Philip Schaff and Sectarianism: The Americanization of a European Viewpoint,” Journal of Church and State 8 (1966): 97-106.

Brenner, Francis Scott, “Nevin and Mercersburg Theology,” Theology Today 12.1 (1955): 43-56.

Carlough, William L., “German Idealism and the Theology of John W. Nevin,” Reformed Review 17 (1962): 37-45.

DeBie, Linden J., “Real Presence or Real Absence? The Spoils of War in Nineteenth-Century American Eucharistic Controversy,” Pro Ecclesia 4 (1995): 431-441.

Farley, Michael A., “The Liturgical Theology of John Williamson Nevin,” Studia Liturgica 33 (2003): 204-222.

Hageman, Howard G., “Back to Mercersburg,” Reformed Journal 35.8 (1985): 6.

Holifield, E. Brooks, “Mercersburg, Princeton, and the South: The Sacramental Controversy in the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Presbyterian History 54 (1976): 238-257.

Johnson, Kathryn L., “The Mustard Seed and the Leaven: Philip Schaff’s Confident View of Christian History,” Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 50 (1981): 117-170.

Jones, Charles A., Mercersburg: A Reformed Alternative for the Twentieth Century,” Scholarship, Sacraments, and Service: Historical Studies in Protestant Tradition, ed. Daniel B. Clendenin and W. David Buschart (Lewiston, New York: Mellon, 1990).

Meyer, John C., “Philip Schaff as an Ecumenical Prophet,” Ecumenical Review 47 (1995): 52-59.

Miller, Rufus W., “Philip Schaff, Prophet and Pioneer in Christian Unity and the Manifestation of Unity,” Reformed Church Review 61 (1914): 234-262.

New Mercersburg Review, No. 1 (1985-present).

Payne, John B., “Schaff and Nevin, Colleagues at Mercersburg: The Church Question,” Church History 61 (1992): 169-190.

Penzel, Klaus, “Church History in Context: The Case of Philip Schaff,” Our Common History as Christians, ed. John Deschner et. al. (New York, 1975): 217-260.

Pensel, Klaus, “Philip Schaff – A Centennial Appraisal,” Church History 59 (1990): 207-221.

Penzel, Klaus, “The Reformation Goes West: Development in the Thought of Philip Schaff,” Journal of Religion 62 (1982): 219-241.

Richards, George Warren, “A Forgotten Theology,” Church History 9:1 (March 1940): 37-53.

Richards, George Warren, “The Life and Work of Philip Schaff,” Bulletin of the Theological Seminary of the Evangelical and Reformed Church in the United States 15 (1944): 155-172.

Richards, George Warren, “Philip Schaff – Prophet of Christian Union,” Christendom 10 (1945): 463-471.

Richards, George Warren, “The Mercersburg Tradition: Its Purpose and Principles,” Church History, 20:3 (Sept. 1951): 42-55.

Schaeffer, Charles, “The Ministry in the Reformed Church,” McCauley Lecture, Lancaster Theological Seminary, Lancaster Pennsylvania, 1925.

Shriver, George H., “Passages in Friendship: John W. Nevin to Charles Hodge,” Journal of Presbyterian History 58 (1980): 116-122.

Shriver, George H., “Philip Schaff: America’s Destiny in the Unfinished Reformation,” Journal of Presbyterian History 50 (1972): 148-159.

Shriver, George H., “Philip Schaff as a Teacher of Church History,” Journal of Presbyterian History 47 (1969): 74-92.

Slifer, Morris D., “The Liturgical Tradition of the Reformed Church in the USA,” Studia Liturgica I (1962): 228-240.

Smylie, J. H., “Philip Schaff: Ecumenist; The Reunion of Protestantism and Roman Catholicism,” Encounter 28 (1967): 3-16.

Wallace, Peter J., “History and Sacrament: John Williamson Nevin and Charles Hodge on the Lord’s Supper,” Mid-America Journal of Theology 11 (2000): 171-201.

Wentz, Richard E., “John Williamson Nevin and American Nationalism,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 58 (1990): 617-632.

Woolverton, John, “Nineteenth Century Ecclesiology: J. W. Nevin and the Episcopalians,” Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 49.4 (1980): 361-387.

Yrigoyen, Charles, “Emanuel V. Gerhart: Apologist for the Mercersburg Theology,” Journal of Presbyterian History 57.4 (1979): 485.

Yrigoyen, Charles, “Mercersburg’s Quarrel with Methodism,” Methodist History 22 (1983): 3-19.